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How can I prevent the spread of Enterovirus?

What is Enterovirus?
Non-polio enteroviruses are very common viruses. They cause about 10 to 15 million infections in the United States each year. Anyone can get infected with non-polio enteroviruses. But infants, children, and teenagers are more likely to get infected and become sick. That's because they do not yet have immunity (protection) from previous exposures to the viruses. Most people who get infected with non-polio enteroviruses do not get sick. Or, they may have mild illness, like the common cold. But some people can get very sick and have infection of their heart or brain or even become paralyzed. Infants and people with weakened immune systems have a greater chance of having these complications. You can get infected with non-polio enteroviruses by having close contact with an infected person. You can also get infected by touching objects or surfaces that have the virus on them then touching your mouth, nose, or eyes. In the United States, people are more likely to get infected with non-polio enteroviruses in the summer and fall.
 
What are the symptoms of Enterovirus infection?
Symptoms of enteroviruses are associated with various clinical symptoms including[1]:

  • Mild Respiratory Illness
  • Febrile Rash Illness
  • Neurologic Illness
  • Aseptic Meningitis
  • Encephalitis

 
What is the current situation in the United States?
The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has identified an acute outbreak of Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) in several pediatric healthcare settings in the United States. Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) infections are thought to occur less frequently than infections with other enteroviruses. EV-D68 was first identified in California in 1962. Compared with other enteroviruses, EV-D68 has been rarely reported in the United States for last 40 years[2]. On September 12, 2014, the CDC issued a Public Health Advisory detailing new recommendations to combat EV-D68 in healthcare settings.[3]

 

How can I protect myself?
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention offers the following additional Infection Prevention and Control guidance[4]:

  • Washing the hands often with soap and water; especially after using the toilet and changing diapers
  • Avoiding close contact, such as touching and shaking hands, with people who are sick
  • Cleaning and disinfecting environmental surfaces and other frequently touched surfaces with an EPA registered, hospital-grade disinfectant with efficacy claims for non-enveloped viruses

 
What should I do regarding surface disinfection in a healthcare facility?
Please note that there are not specific efficacy claims for Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) for hand hygiene or environmental disinfection products available to date. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention continues to recommend that environmental disinfection of surfaces in healthcare settings be performed using a hospital-grade disinfectant with an EPA label claim for any of several non-enveloped viruses (e.g. norovirus, poliovirus, rhinovirus). Disinfectant products should be used in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions for the specific label claim and in a manner consistent with environmental infection control recommendations. The Sani-Cloth® products listed below have current efficacy claims against non-enveloped viruses:

 

Enterovirus Guidance Quicklinks:

Overview: http://www.cdc.gov/non-polio-enterovirus/about/EV-D68.html

Transmission: http://www.cdc.gov/non-polio-enterovirus/about/transmission.html

Prevention & Treatment: http://www.cdc.gov/non-polio-enterovirus/about/prevention-treatment.html

For Healthcare Professionals: http://www.cdc.gov/non-polio-enterovirus/hcp.html


[1] American Academy of Pediatrics. Section 3: Enterovirus (nonpoliovirus) and parechovirus infections (group A and B coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, numbered enteroviruses, and human parechoviruses) – clinical manifestations. In Red Book: 2012 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. Pickering LK, ed. 29th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2012.
[2] Midgley, C. M.; et al. Severe Respiratory Illness Associated with Enterovirus D68-Missouri and Illinois, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, September 8, 2014. 
[3] Severe Respiratory Illness Associated with Enterovirus D68-Multiple States; Public Health Advisory EV-D68, electronically accessed via http://emergency.cdc.gov/han/han00369.asp, September 12, 2014. 
[4] Non-Polio Enterovirus: Enterovirus D68, Electronically Accessed from http://www.cdc.gov/non-polio-enterovirus/about/EV-D68.html?s_cid=cdc_homepage_whatsnew_001, September 8, 2014.